dissabte, 27 de juny de 2009

JEOPARDY VE DEL CATALÀ-TROBADORESC “JOC PARTIT”

JEOPARDY VE DEL CATALÀ-TROBADORESC “JOC PARTIT”

"Nunca te acostarás sin saber una cosa más..."

Respecte a “jeopardy”.. el diccionary diu el mateix que em va dir na Helena Martí...

Estavem traduïnt a l’anglès, el text de “Leonardo, Montserrat i el secret de la Gioconda”, i vaig emprar “jeopardize”, per dir que els seus colegues el “posaven en entredit” com a pintor, quan de fet en aquest cas concret quedava millor: “were questioning”.. com va dir el Mike.., però aquesta discrepància em va portar a encetar una petita investigació sobre “jeopardy”...

Diccionari (significat de jeopardy):

Nom

Verb

1. perill

2. dany

3. risc

1. ocasionar

2. arriscar

3. perillar

4. posar en perill

5. danyar

6. comprometre


1.- double jeopardy == "jutjar" dues vegades

2.- jeopardy. n [ME jeopardie, fr. AF juparti, fr. OF jeu parti, lit., divided game] (D'origen "trobadoresc" català-provençal)

Aquí és on vaig saltar de la cadira, “jeopardy” un mot català!!!:

“Joc partit o Partiment” (és un debat dialogat sobre temàtica amorosa davant un tribunal o cort d'amor)...”

(Els trobadors empraven tambè el “Sirventés”- Cançó política, moral, satírica i social, on es defensava un home, una idea o una acció determinada – no us inspira res?).

“The "jeu parti", or "débat", a debate on love between two poets; the alba, or morning song, in which lovers are warned by a night watchman that day approaches and that the jealous husband may at any time surprise them... “

Pot-ser d'aquest "perill" va venir l'accepció actual... ;-) .. però aquí els poetes posaven "en tela de judici" el seu amor i discutien fins l'alba, quin era el millor.. (d’aquí el nom de la cançó, la definició catalana ho deixa bèn clar..)

És curiós perqué porto 25 anys emprant un significat de "jeopardy" que no és l'estàndar. És a dir, amb el sentit que jo li donava => "posar en tela de judici"... encara que... pot-ser veladament, la meva acepció, en anglès, existeix o ha existit des de els seus origens (que com hem vist són ben catalans..), encara que ells no ho sàpiguen.

S’han quedat tant amb el sentit de “perill”, que expliquen el significat de “double jeopardy” (que és estrictament “jutjar - posar en judici” dues vegades), dient que és degut a que el reu està en doble perill de mort!!.. Senyor baixa!! Aixó és il.luminació divina!! No en tenen ni idea!!

Allà pels anys 80, estant a Madrid em varen demanar que volia dir "jeopardize" i vaig contestar: "poner en la picota", que curiosament està a cavall entre ”posar en perill" i ”posar en entredit"... el "comprometre" també s'hi acosta.. més “light”, però mireu la acepció jurídica... veureu que se sembla més a la 2ª.

Jo curiosament no ho vaig mirar mai al diccionari, ho vaig treure del context dels meus anys parlant amb gent nativa, el 1985 ja portava 25 anys navegant amb americans i anglesos...

"Poner en la picota”: La picota es una piedra con una punta afilada enque se colocaban las cabezas de los ajusticiados en la plaza pública o a la entrada de las ciudades. ..."

Si algú vol traduïr a l'anglès "posar a la picota" amb una sola paraula.. no crec que n'hi hagi cap altre que s'hi acosti tant.. emprant-la en el sentit de “posar en tela de judici" (amb els caps a la plaça pública...), renoi si implicava perill i als "reus" s'els jutjava..

Sembla ser que vaig continuar a l'edat mitjana.. no amb el sentit que té avui, de fet.. en aquells temps "posar a la picota" comportava un perill palès... ;-)...

Acepció jurídica

(double jeopardy=jutjar dues vegades)
1. (1006) double jeopardy
... double jeopardy, in law, protection ag
ainst the use by the state
of certain multiple forms of prosecution...
... In general (in countries observing the rule of double jeopardy), a
person cannot be convicted twice for the same crime based on the same
conduct...
... The defense of double jeopardy also prevents the state from
retrying a person for the same crime after he has been acquitted...

2. (1004) Criminal Law: Principles of criminal law: SUBSTANTIVE
CRIMINAL LAW: The definition of criminal conduct.
... Protection against double jeopardy...
... In Anglo-American law the most difficult problems of double
jeopardy involve the question of whether the second prosecution is for
the "same" or a "different" offense...

3. (1004) Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan
... 319 (1937), a criminal case involving a claim of double jeopardy,
he held that the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) to the Constitution
imposed on the states only those provisions of the Bill of Rights (the
first 10 amendments, 1791) that were "of the very essence of a scheme
of ordered liberty...
... Maryland), which held that the rule against double jeopardy was so
fundamental to justice as to be a requirement of due process of law...

4. (1002) Criminal Law
... Protection against double jeopardy...

5. (1002) Procedural Law: Criminal procedure: POST-CONVICTION PROCEDURE
... This is due to a strict interpretation of the concept of double
jeopardy, which forbids a defendant to be tried twice for the same
act...

6. (1002) Procedural Law: Conflict of laws: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL
LAW: Foreign judgments.
... In this way the double jeopardy rules of many national laws,
barring a second proceeding on the same facts, is extended to the
international level...

7. (1002) The Theory and Conduct of War: THE INSTITUTION OF WAR:
Military law: JURISDICTION: Offenses against military law.
... All countries have rules to prevent the double jeopardy of an
offender being punished for one act by both civil and military
jurisdiction...

8. (1002) accused, rights of
..., cross-examine) his accusers, as well as freedom from unreasonable
searches and seizures and freedom from double jeopardy...

9. (1002) Rights, Bill of
... The Fifth Amendment requires grand jury indictment in prosecutions
for major crimes and prohibits double jeopardy for a single offense...

10. (1002) criminal law
... Criminal law usually precludes the trial of a person a second time
for the same offense (double jeopardy) and contains statutes of
limitations--that is, limits for the period during which charges may
be made...
19 Items found in 'Articles' for 'jeopardize', showing 10 . [Show ALL]

Acepció estàndard..

1. (1) China: HISTORY: The People's Republic of China: THE
CULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1966-76: Consequences of the Cultural Revolution.
... Officials at all levels of the political system had learned
that future shifts in policy would jeopardize those who had
aggressively implemented previous policy...

2. (1) Southern Africa: THE REGION: History: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY
OF SOUTHERN AFRICA, 1910-45: North of the Limpopo.: Southern Rhodesia.
... Thus, international capital's fears that self-government would
jeopardize their interests proved unfounded...

3. (1) Hungary: Physical and human geography: THE ECONOMY
... The state intervenes with financial assistance only if the
closure of an enterprise would affect a large number of workers or if
it would jeopardize national security...

4. (1) Protestantism: THE PROTESTANT HERITAGE: Teaching, worship,
and organization: COMMON PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF THE MAGISTERIAL
REFORMERS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS: The ongoing reformation of the church.
... While most of the Reformers, once established, tended to
resist extensions of reformation that would jeopardize their status
and definition, almost all Protestants, at least nominally, assented
to the idea that ecclesia reformata semper reformanda--i...

5. (1) China: HISTORY: The People's Republic of China:
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC: Readjustment and reaction,
1961-65.
... 16, 1964) affected the debate by appearing to support Mao's
contention that domestic revolutionization would in no way jeopardize
long-term power aspirations and defense capabilities...


6. (1) Frederick the Great: Domestic policies.: Army and the state.
... In 1749 and 1764 he issued decrees limiting the obligations of
the peasant to his lord, and in 1748 he ordered officers not to treat
their men "like serfs"; but these were essentially efforts to prevent
the plight of the peasant from becoming so desperate that he would be
driven into flight and thus jeopardize the supply of recruits...

7. (1) Reproduction and Reproductive Systems: HUMAN REPRODUCTION
FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH: Parturition: the process of birth: OPERATIVE
OBSTETRICS
... If an expeditious delivery is desired to reduce maternal
stress, especially if the woman suffers from conditions such as heart
disease, acute pulmonary edema, or certain neurological conditions or
if exhaustion or a prolonged second stage of labour jeopardize a
successful vaginal delivery, forceps may be employed...

8. (1) Italy: HISTORY: Italy, 962-1300: THE AGE OF THE
HOHENSTAUFEN: Frederick II.
... This dramatic reversal on the part of the pope and his seeming
willingness to jeopardize what most historians have viewed as the
papal position in Italy has raised serious questions...

9. (1) Insurance: Kinds of insurance: LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE:
Group insurance.
... The insurer tends to be liberal on claims settlement because
the typical premium under a group plan is large enough for the insurer
to be unwilling to jeopardize the good will of the clientele through
miserly claims treatment...

10. (1) The Crusades: The crusading movement and the first four
Crusades: THE FOURTH CRUSADE AND THE LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE
... Reluctant to jeopardize the Crusade, Innocent gave conditional
absolution to the crusaders--not, however, to the Venetians...